Git Cheatsheet

Git commands that developers should know

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Index


Setup

Show current configuration:
$ git config --list
Show repository configuration:
$ git config --local --list
Show global configuration:
$ git config --global --list
Show system configuration:
$ git config --system --list
Set a name that is identifiable for credit when review version history:
$ git config --global user.name “[firstname lastname]”
Set an email address that will be associated with each history marker:
$ git config --global user.email “[valid-email]”
Set automatic command line coloring for Git for easy reviewing:
$ git config --global color.ui auto
Set global editor for commit
$ git config --global core.editor vi

Configuration Files

Repository specific configuration file [--local]:
<repo>/.git/config
User-specific configuration file [--global]:
~/.gitconfig
System-wide configuration file [--system]:
/etc/gitconfig

Create

Clone an existing repository:

There are two ways:

Via SSH

$ git clone ssh://user@domain.com/repo.git

Via HTTP

$ git clone http://domain.com/user/repo.git
Create a new local repository in the current directory:
$ git init
Create a new local repository in a specific directory:
$ git init <directory>

Local Changes

Changes in working directory:
$ git status
Changes to tracked files:
$ git diff
See changes/difference of a specific file:
$ git diff <file>
Add all current changes to the next commit:
$ git add .
Add some changes in <file> to the next commit:
$ git add -p <file>
Add only the mentioned files to the next commit:
$ git add <filename1> <filename2>
Commit all local changes in tracked files:
$ git commit -a
Commit previously staged changes:
$ git commit
Commit with message:
$ git commit -m 'message here'
Commit skipping the staging area and adding message:
$ git commit -am 'message here'
Commit to some previous date:
$ git commit --date="`date --date='n day ago'`" -am "<Commit Message Here>"
Change last commit:

Don't amend published commits!

$ git commit -a --amend
Amend with last commit but use the previous commit log message

Don't amend published commits!

$ git commit --amend --no-edit
Change committer date of last commit:
GIT_COMMITTER_DATE="date" git commit --amend
Change Author date of last commit:
$ git commit --amend --date="date"
Move uncommitted changes from current branch to some other branch:
$ git stash
$ git checkout branch2
$ git stash pop
Restore stashed changes back to current branch:
$ git stash apply

Restore particular stash back to current branch:

  • {stash_number} can be obtained from git stash list
$ git stash apply stash@{stash_number}
Remove the last set of stashed changes:
$ git stash drop

A text search on all files in the directory:
$ git grep "Hello"
$ git grep "Hello" v2.5
Show commits that introduced a specific keyword
$ git log -S 'keyword'
Show commits that introduced a specific keyword (using a regular expression)
$ git log -S 'keyword' --pickaxe-regex

Commit History

Show all commits, starting with newest (it'll show the hash, author information, date of commit and title of the commit):
$ git log
Show all the commits(it'll show just the commit hash and the commit message):
$ git log --oneline
Show all commits of a specific user:
$ git log --author="username"
Show changes over time for a specific file:
$ git log -p <file>
Display commits that are present only in remote/branch in right side
$ git log --oneline <origin/master>..<remote/master> --left-right
Who changed, what and when in <file>:
$ git blame <file>
Show Reference log:
$ git reflog show
Delete Reference log:
$ git reflog delete

Move or Rename

Rename a file:

Rename Index.txt to Index.html

$ git mv Index.txt Index.html

Branches and Tags

List all local branches:
$ git branch

List local/remote branches

$ git branch -a
List all remote branches:
$ git branch -r
Switch HEAD branch:
$ git checkout <branch>
Checkout single file from different branch
$ git checkout <branch> -- <filename>
Create and switch new branch:
$ git checkout -b <branch>
Switch to the previous branch, without saying the name explicitly:
$ git checkout -
Create a new branch from an exiting branch and switch to new branch:
$ git checkout -b <new_branch> <existing_branch>

Checkout and create a new branch from existing commit

$ git checkout <commit-hash> -b <new_branch_name>
Create a new branch based on your current HEAD:
$ git branch <new-branch>
Create a new tracking branch based on a remote branch:
$ git branch --track <new-branch> <remote-branch>
Delete a local branch:
$ git branch -d <branch>
Rename current branch to new branch name
$ git branch -m <new_branch_name>
Force delete a local branch:

You will lose unmerged changes!

$ git branch -D <branch>
Mark HEAD with a tag:
$ git tag <tag-name>
Mark HEAD with a tag and open the editor to include a message:
$ git tag -a <tag-name>
Mark HEAD with a tag that includes a message:
$ git tag <tag-name> -am 'message here'
List all tags:
$ git tag
List all tags with their messages (tag message or commit message if tag has no message):
$ git tag -n

Update and Publish

List all current configured remotes:
$ git remote -v
Show information about a remote:
$ git remote show <remote>
Add new remote repository, named <remote>:
$ git remote add <remote> <url>
Rename a remote repository, from <remote> to <new_remote>:
$ git remote rename <remote> <new_remote>
Remove a remote:
$ git remote rm <remote>

Note: git remote rm does not delete the remote repository from the server. It simply removes the remote and its references from your local repository.

Download all changes from <remote>, but don't integrate into HEAD:
$ git fetch <remote>
Download changes and directly merge/integrate into HEAD:
$ git remote pull <remote> <url>
Get all changes from HEAD to local repository:
$ git pull origin master
Get all changes from HEAD to local repository without a merge:
$ git pull --rebase <remote> <branch>
Publish local changes on a remote:
$ git push remote <remote> <branch>
Delete a branch on the remote:
$ git push <remote> :<branch> (since Git v1.5.0)

OR

$ git push <remote> --delete <branch> (since Git v1.7.0)
Publish your tags:
$ git push --tags

Configure the merge tool globally to meld (editor)

$ git config --global merge.tool meld
Use your configured merge tool to solve conflicts:
$ git mergetool

Merge and Rebase

Merge branch into your current HEAD:
$ git merge <branch>

List merged branches

$ git branch --merged
Rebase your current HEAD onto <branch>:

Don't rebase published commit!

$ git rebase <branch>
Abort a rebase:
$ git rebase --abort
Continue a rebase after resolving conflicts:
$ git rebase --continue
Use your editor to manually solve conflicts and (after resolving) mark file as resolved:
$ git add <resolved-file>
$ git rm <resolved-file>
Squashing commits:
$ git rebase -i <commit-just-before-first>

Now replace this,

pick <commit_id>
pick <commit_id2>
pick <commit_id3>

to this,

pick <commit_id>
squash <commit_id2>
squash <commit_id3>

Undo

Discard all local changes in your working directory:
$ git reset --hard HEAD
Get all the files out of the staging area(i.e. undo the last git add):
$ git reset HEAD
Discard local changes in a specific file:
$ git checkout HEAD <file>
Revert a commit (by producing a new commit with contrary changes):
$ git revert <commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and discard all changes since then:
$ git reset --hard <commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a remote branch current state.
$ git reset --hard <remote/branch> e.g., upstream/master, origin/my-feature
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and preserve all changes as unstaged changes:
$ git reset <commit>
Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit and preserve uncommitted local changes:
$ git reset --keep <commit>
Remove files that were accidentally committed before they were added to .gitignore
$ git rm -r --cached .
$ git add .
$ git commit -m "remove xyz file"

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